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        上海东方网

        上海东方网

        We here at Infoplease like to encourage source literacy—that means the ability to sort out useful sources?and to identify potential bias. We like to think of ourselves as?impartial to the data, but the info we use?impacts what we put on the web.?

        Usually, Infoplease pages will have their specific sources listed on the page. These will be?under the relevant data or at the bottom of the article. But, some of our older pages lack proper citation. We use the same sources over and over again. It can?skip our minds to cite them as new. If you're ever curious about where a page sources its information from, email us?infoplease@fen.com?or contact us through the link in our footer. We'll make sure to include that information on the page in question.

        In general, articles on?Infoplease reference?the following:?

        上海东方网

        The UN is about as official a source as one can find. The different specialized agencies of the UN gather all sorts of valuable data which they publish annually. We refer to these agencies all across the site. We use these sources in pages comparing countries?or discussing global statistics. We reference UNESCO when discussing world culture and heritage. The different agencies are listed below.?

        • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
        • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
        • International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
        • International Labour Organization (ILO)
        • International Maritime Organization (IMO)
        • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
        • International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
        • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural?Organization (UNESCO)
        • United Nations Industrial Development Organization?(UNIDO)
        • Universal Postal Union (UPU)
        • World Bank Group
        • World Health Organization (WHO)
        • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
        • World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
        • World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

        You can learn more about the functions of these different agencies on the official UN website.

        http://ask.un.org/faq/140935?

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        We?also refer to the published data and results of other U.S. agencies and departments. These groups present the official figures for the United States for everything from education to the economy. We might offer opposing data, but these official data are the most reliable. Regardless the policies and politics of the departments, people across the political spectrum generally agree on the basic information they gather and publish.?Most of our U.S. pages will refer to these sources.?

        上海东方网

        The LOC is one of the largest archives in the world. They have all kinds of letters, books, and images. Whenever we're looking for a primary source?or historic?document, we'll?check the LOC. We source from here for history pages and?pages discussing culture in the U.S.?

        https://www.loc.gov/

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        上海东方网

        The American Medical Association comprises a huge number of physicians and medical students in the United States. The AMA?typically represents the majority opinion of American doctors about different issues. We'll cite the AMA in articles about medicine, biology, or healthcare in the United States. When useful, we'll cite major dissenting opinions, but we?rely on the AMA to present the best-held medical opinions.?

        https://www.ama-assn.org/

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        上海东方网

        Awards always publicly announce their results. We often don't bother sourcing these because the source is self-evident; in a page discussing the year's Pulitzer winners, we obviously checked the official list of Pulitzer winners. We will link out to the official awards page if they have other useful information about the winners or the selection process.?

        上海东方网

        When quoting historical figures or literary classics, we'll usually just link to the source we got our information from. This will typically be Project Gutenberg or various national archives. Sometimes when citing public domain sources, we'll just use a contextual citation (like saying what chapter of a book a quote is from)?since these?are?available to anyone who searches for them.?Feel free to contact us if you're having trouble tracking down?a quote or statistic.?

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        上海东方网

        JSTOR is a digital library compiling back issues (and some current issues) of hundreds of academic journals. We only cite JSTOR materials when discussing complicated subjects.?The content of these journals is?targeted more at experts than casual readers, but they collectively represent some of the most thorough and valuable scholarship available. A bit of a note on academic journals though; not all journals are equal. A good journal should have the support of respected scholars, and any papers they publish should be looked at by several (possibly dissenting)?experts before publication. This process is meant to ensure that the basic level of scholarship is high?and that the ideas being presented aren't based on flawed practices.

        https://www.jstor.org/?

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        上海东方网

        You'll find that the world is chock full of?historical societies?dedicated to preserving the history of different places, people, and things. These historical societies host events and?publish information to educate the public about whatever their particular niche is. We source from historical societies within the realm of what we're writing about; e.g. if we're writing about the American Revolution, we can get lots of helpful info from our local historical associations like Historic New England.